West Coast Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forest

It is a closed high forest with heterogeneous mixture of evergreen and deciduous species, the former generally dominating. It is found adjoining the evergreen forests, mostly along the lower slopes. The lower slopes being more easily accessible have been subjected to heavy interference in the past. Floristic composition of this type depends on the component species of the original evergreen forests and those of the deciduous seral communities with high ecological amplitude occurring around. Percentage of the evergreen species and deciduous species in this heterogeneous mixture varies depending on various factors. The species diversity is high but many of the typical evergreen species are absent. Buttressed stems continue to be frequent. Bark tends to be thick and rough and cauliflory is not common. The general canopy is typically less dense than in the true evergreen and the evergreen undergrowth rather more copious; climbers tend to be very heavy. Bamboo and reeds are usually present in certain localities. Epiphytes with many ferns and orchids are abundant.

This forest type is found in the Pallivasal and Pullubetha areas of Rosemala, Kattilappara, Kallar, Choodal and Kalluvarambu. Here also a three tier structure of tree canopy is found.

Trees of the upper storey are Dipterocarpus indicus, Vateria indica, Myristica dactyloides, Mangifera indica, Syzygium hemisphericum, S.cumini, Pterospermum rubidinosum, Antiaris toxicaria, Pterygota alata, Tetrameles nudiflora, Madhuca bourdillonii, Ficus ssp., Elaeocarpus tuberculatus, Toona ciliata, Chukrasia tabularis, Artocarpus hirsutus, Polyalthia coffeoides, Diospyros buxifolia, etc.

The middle canopy comprises of Aglaia barberi, Buchanania lanceolata, Diospyros Montana, D.foliosa, D.paniculata, D.candolleana, Hunteria zeylanica, Dimocarpus longan, Harpullia arborea, Lepisanthes tetraphylla, Walsura trifolia, Mastixia arborea ssp. Meziana, Sageraea grandiflora, Pterospermum diversifolium, Litsea travencorensis, L.coreacea, Cinnamomum ssp., Vitex altissima, Cyathocalyx zeylanica, etc.

In the lower storey are Orophea erythrocarpa, Capparis rheedei, Clausena pubescens, Canthium umbellatum, Aidia gardneri, Memecylon talbotianum, M.deccanense, Syzygium mundagam, Blepharistemma serratum, Canthium pergracile, Archidendron monadelphum, Tarenna asiatica, Ixora brachiata, etc.

The shrubby layer is composed of Hibiscus lunariifolius, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Cipadessa baccifera, Turraea villosa, Gomphandra tetrandra, Leae guineensis, Allophylus concanicus, Psychotria ssp., etc.

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